The Bio-Rad Gene Pulser apparatus is a pulse generator which uses capacitor discharge to produce controlled exponential pulses for cell electroporation. The unit is capable of producing pulses of up to 2,500 volts at over 125 amperes.
Pulses with field strengths of up to 12,500 V/cm can be generated in a 0.2 cm cuvette, or pulses of up to 6,250 V/cm can be generated in a 0.4 cm cuvette. The unit provides digital read-out of the voltage and capacitance settings. After a pulse is delivered, the actual voltage and resistance-capacitance (RC) time constant are automatically measured and may be displayed.
The Gene Pulser apparatus contains a power supply and capacitors of 0.25, 1.0, 3.0, and 25.0 microfarads (µF).
Connectors at the rear of the Gene Pulser apparatus allow the use of the optional Capacitance Extender, which contains capacitors of 125, 250, 500, and 960 µF.
The Capacitance Extender is a recommended addition for electroporation of most eukaryotic cells, including mammalian cells and plant protoplasts.