The Idaho Technology Inc. RapidCycler 2 is the first instrument engineered to match the speed of biochemical reactions and is used by thousands of research centers worldwide. It uses 1.5 mm Roche LightCycler Capillary tubes which are ideally suited for high-speed temperature cycling due to their thin walls and extremely high surface-area-to-volume ratio. By combining glass capillary tubes and air as the cycling medium we have cut sample temperature lag to less than a second, therefore yielding high temperature ramp rates. Inside RapidCyclers cylindrical reaction chamber, tornado-like conditions ensure both temperature uniformity and rapid heat exchange within the sample. This allows the RapidCycler to spend less than one second at the high and low temperatures and still be certain that each sample has reached the target temperature. Temperature transition rates in most thermal cyclers average approximately 1° C/sec when metal blocks or water are used for thermal equilibration and samples
are contained in plastic microfuge tubes.